Gita Rahasya -Tilak 194

Karma Yoga Sastra -Tilak


The explanation of how the numerous inactive (acetana), that is to say, lifeless or gross objects in the world, which can be distinguished by Name and Form, came into existence out of the fundamental imperceptible Matter — or according to the Vedanta theory, from the Parabrahman — is now over. I shall now consider what more the Samkhya philosophy tells us about the creation of the sacetana (that is, active) beings in the world, and later on, see how far that can be harmonised with the Vedanta doctrines. The body of living beings comes into existence when the five gross primordial elements sprung from the fundamental Matter are united with the subtle organs. But though this body is organic, it is still gross. The element which activates these organs is distinct from Gross Matter rand it is known as Spirit ( purusa ). I have, in the previous 'chapter, mentioned the various doctrines of the Samkhya philosophy that this Spirit is fundamentally inactive, that the living world begins to come into existence when this Spirit is united with fundamental Matter, and that 'when the Spirit acquires the knowledge that "I am -different from Matter", its union with Matter is dissolved, failing which it has to peregrinate in the cycle of birth and death. But as I have not, in that chapter, explained how the Atman — or according to Samkhya terminology, the Purusa — of the person, who dies without having realised that the Atman is different from Matter, gets one birth .after another, it is necessary now to consider that question more in detail. It is quite clear that the Atman of the man who dies without having acquired Self-Realisation does not escape entirely from the meshes of Matter ; because, if such were the case, one will have to say with Carvaka, that every man escapes from the tentacles of Matter or attains Release- immediately after death ; and Self -Realisation or the difference between sin and virtue will lose its importance. Likewise, if you say that after death, the Atman or the Spirit alone survives, and that it, of its own accord, performs the action of taking new births, then the fundamental theorem that Spirit is inactive and apathetic, and that all the activity is of Matter is contradicted. Besides, by acknowledging that the Atman takes new births of its own accord, you admit that to be its property > and fall into the impossible position that it will never escape from the cycle of birth and death. It, therefore, follows that though a man may have died without having acquired Self- Realisation, his Atman must remain united with Matter, in order that Matter should give it new births.


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