Karma Yoga Sastra -Tilak
THE MATERIALISTIC THEORY OF HAPPINESS
duhkhad uddvij te sarvasya sukham Ipsitam I *  As we have seen that stock precepts like: 'mahajano yena gatah sa panthah', i. e. 'follow the path which has been followed by venerable persons', or, 'ati sarvatra varjayet', i. e., 'do too much of nothing', do not satisfactorily explain : (i)' why Manu and the other legislators laid down the rules of 'ahimsa satyamasteya' (Non-Violence, Veracity, Not-stealing) etc., (ii) whether those rules are mutable or immutable, (iii) what their extent or the fundamental principle underlying them is, and (iv) which precept should be followed when two or more of them are equally in point and yit conflict with each other, it is now necessary for us to see whether or not there are any definite means for properly determining these questions, and deciding which is the most beneficial or meritorious path of duty, as also, in what way and from what point of view we can determine the relative importance or the greater or less worth of mutually conflicting principles of morality. I have in the last chapter explained that there are three ways of considering the questions involved in the exposition of Action and Non-Action, namely, the Positive, (adhibhautika), the Theological (adhidaivika), and the Metaphysical (adhyatmika), just as in the case of the scientific exposition of other matters. According to our philosophers the most excellent of these ways is the Metaphysical way. But, as it is necessary to carefully consider the other two methods in order to fully understand the importance of the Metaphysical method, I have in this chapter first considered the fundamental Materialistic principles under- lying the examination of the question of Aotion and Non- Action. The positive physical sciences, which have had an immense growth in modern times have to deal principally with the external or visible properties of tangible objects.  ADHIBHAUTIKA SUKHAVADA
Therefore, those persons who have spent their lives in studying' the physical sciences, or who attach much importance to the critical methods particular to these sciences, get into the habit, of always considering only the external effects of things ; and their philosophical vision being thereby to a certain extent, narrowed, they do not, in discussing any particular thing, attach much importance to causes which are Metaphysical, or intangible, or invisible, or which have reference to the next, world. But, although on that account, they leave out of consideration the Metaphysical or the next-world point of view, yet, as codes of morality are necessary for the satisfactory regulation of the mutual relations of human beings and for public welfare, even these philosophers, who are indifferent, about life after death or who have no faith in intangible or' Metaphysical knowledge, ( and also necesssarily no faith in. God ), look upon the science of Proper Action (Karma-Yoga) as. a most important science ; and, therefore, there has been in the. past and there is still going on, a considerable amount of discussion in the West, as to whether the science of Proper and Improper Action can be satisfactorily dealt with in the same way as the physical sciences, that is to say, by means of arguments based on purely worldly and visible, effects.
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