Karma Yoga Sastra -Tilak
THE KAPILA SAMKHYA PHILOSOPHY OR THE CONSIDERATION OF THE MUTABLE AND THE IMMUTABLE
(KAPILA SAMKHYA-SASTRA OR KSARAKSARA-VICARA)
Therefore, the mental faculties and the Atman must be classified along with the brain in the category of the Perceptible. When you have made this classification,, the imperceptible and gross Matter is ultimately the only thing which remains to be disposed of, because all perceptible- objects have sprung out of this fundamental imperceptible- There is no other creator or generator of the world except- prakrti. When the Energy of the fundamental Matter ( prakrti ) gradually increases, it acquires the form of caitanya (conscious- ness) or of the Atman. This fundamental prakrti is governed by fixed laws or rules like the satkaryavuda, and in accordance- with those laws, the entire universe, as also man, is acting like a prisoner. Not only is the Atman not something different from Matter, but it is neither imperishable nor independent ; then, where is the room for salvation ?. The idea which a person has that he will do a particular thing- according to his own will is a total illusion ; he must go where prakrti (Matter or Nature) drags him. In short, as the late-Mr. Shankar Moro Ranade has stated in the 'Dhrupad (stanza) at the commencement of the drama Kalahapuri--
" The world is a vast prison, all created beings are " prisoners, the inherent qualities of Matter are " shackles which nobody can break ".
Haeckel's opinion is that this is the way in which the existence of the living and the non-living world goes on. Andi because according to him the universe originates from a single, gross, and imperceptible prakrti, he has named his doctrine ' advaita' (non-dualism)*. But in as much as- this advctita-
  doctrine is based on something which is gross, and as it incorporates everything within gross Matter, I have named it 'jaMdvaita ' (Gross Non-dualism) or Non-dualism based on the Natural sciences. But the Sarhkhya philosophy does not accept this Gross Non-dualism. They accept the position that the Mind, Reason and Individuation are qualities of Gross Matter which consists of the five primordial elements and consequently it is stated in the Samkhya philosophy that Reason, Individuation, and other qualities gradually spring out of the fundamental imperceptible Matter. But according to the Saihkhyas, it is impossible that consciousness (caitartya) should spring out of gross Matter; not only that, but the words " I know a particular thing " cannot come to be used unless the one who knows, understands, or sees Matter, is different from Matter, in the same way as no one can sit on his own shoulders; and looking at the affairs of the world, it is the experience of every one that whatever he knows or sees is different from himself.
References And Context
- * Haeokel's original word is 'Monism', and ho has written an, independent work on it.
- SAMKHYA SYSTEM & KSARAKSARA-VICARA 219