Gita Rahasya -Tilak
THE KAPILA SAMKHYA PHILOSOPHY OR THE CONSIDERATION OF THE MUTABLE AND THE IMMUTABLE
(KAPILA SAMKHYA-SASTRA OR KSARAKSARA-VICARA)
Nevertheless, there is a world of difference between the Parabrahman of Vedanta philosophy and the prakrti of Sarhkhya philosophy; because, whereas the Parabrahman is Vitalising and unqualified, prakrti is inactive ( gross ) and is qualified, since it possesses the sattva, rajas and tamos qualities. But this subject-matter will be more fully con- sidered later on. For the moment, we have only to consider what the doctrines of the Sarhkhya philosophy are. ; When the words auksma, Mala, wjalsia, and avyakta have been defined as above, one comes to the inevitable conclusion  that in the beginning of the universe, every object is in the form of subtle and imperceptible prakrti and that it after- wards becomes vyaltta ( perceptible to the organs ), whether it is subtle or gross; and that at the time of pralaya (total destruction of the universe), when this its perceptibtle form is destroyed, it again becomes merged into imperceptible Matter and becomes imperceptible. And the same opinion has been expressed in the Gita  In the Sarhkhya philosophy, this imperceptible Matter is also known as 'aksara (Immutable) and all things which are formed out of it are known as 'ksara' (Mutable). ' ksara' is not to be understood as meaning something which is totally destroyed, but only the destruction of the perceptible form is here meant, 'prakrti ' has also other names, such as, ' pradhdna ' (fundamental), ' guria- icsobhini ' (stirrer up of the constituents), 'bahudhanalca ' (many- seeded), and ' prasam-dharmini ' (generative). It is 'pradhana (fundamental), because, it is the fundamental root of all objects in the universe; it is 'gurtaksobhiifV (stirrer up of constituents), because, it of its own accord breaks up the equable state of its three constituents (gums); it is ' bahudhanaka ' (many-seeded), because, it contains the germs of differentiation between various objscta in the shape of the three constituents; and it is ' prasaoa-dluinnini" (ganjrative), because, all things are born or come into existence out of it. That is why these different names are given to Matter. This pralcrli is known in Vedanta philosophy as 'Maya' (Illusion) or an illusory appearance.
"When all things in the world are classified under the two •divisions of ' Perceptible ' and ' Imperceptible ' or ' Mutable ' and 'Immutable', the next question which arises is into what categories the Atman, the Mind, Intelligence, Individuation, and the organs, which have been mentioned in the last chapter on the ksetra-ksetrajna-mcara, are to be put according to Sarhkhya philosophy. The ksetra and the organs being gross, they will of course be included in the category of the Percepti- ble. But how is one to dispose of the Mind, Individuation, Intelligence, and especially of the Atman ? The modern eminent European biologist Haeckel says in his books that  the Mind, Intelligence, Individuation and the Atman are all faculties of the body. We see that when the brain in a. man's head is deranged, he loses memory and even becomes- mad, Similarly, even if any part of the brain is deadened on account of a blow on the head, the mental faculty of that, part is seen to come to an end. In short, mental faculties are only faculties of gross Matter and they can never be separated from gross Matter.
References And Context
- SAMKHYA SYSTEM & KSARAKSARA-VICARA 217
- (Gi. 2. 28 and 8. 18).
- 318 GITA-RAHASYA OR KARMA-YOGA