Karma Yoga Sastra -Tilak
THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE ABSOLUTE SELF
where the fundamental substance is one, and only its forms or appearances are changed, this theory does not apply; because, as is common experience, seeing various appearances of one and the same thing is not a quality of that thing, and these various appearances can come into existence as a result of the difference in the vision of the persons who see.  When this theory is applied to the qualityless Brahman and the qualityful universe, one has to say that the Brahman is qualityless, and that an appearance of qualityfulness comes into existence in it, as a result of the nature of the human organs. This is known as the ' Vivarta-vada. ' According to Vivarta-vada, there is believed to be only one, fundamental, Real substance, and it is said that numerous, unreal or constantly changing Appearances are ascribed to it ; and in the Guna-parinama-vada, two Real susbtances are taken for granted from the very commencement, and it is said that the Gunas ( constituents ) of one of these two become unfurled, and that all other things in the universe which are possessed of various qualities come into existence in con- sequence. The impression of the existence of a serpent, where, as a matter of fact, there is only a string, is the Vivarta-vada ; and, fibres being formed into a rope, or curds out of milk, is the Guna-parinama-vada.
References And Context
- To explain this meaning in English, we have to say : Appearances are the results of subjective condition, viz., the senses of the observer, and not of the Thing-in-itself