Gita Rahasya -Tilak
THE CONSIDERATION OF HAPPINESS AND UNHAPPINESS
i. e., " that Metaphysical Happiness which is the result of the contentedness of the Self-engrossed Reason (that is, of the Reason which having realised the true nature of the Atman, namely, that there is only one Atman in all created beings, is engrossed in that idea) is the sattvika (placid), that is, the most superior kind of happiness and the Gita goes on to say that the Material Happiness arising from the organs and the objects of the organs is of a lower grade, that is, is rajasa  and that the happi- ness which arises from sleep, or idleness or which confuses the mind is the most inferior form, that is, is tamasa. That is the meaning which is conveyed by the stanza from the Gita which has been quoted at the commencement of this chapter, and the Gita itself says  that when a man has once experienced this beatific happiness, he is not shaken from this peaceful mental frame, whatever the magnitude of the misfortune which subsequently befalls him.
This beatific happiness is not to be found even in the enjoyment of heavenly objects of pleasure, and the Reason of a man has in the first instance to become absolutely contented before he can experience it. He who is always engrossed in the enjoyment of the objects of pleasure, without seeing how he can keep his frame of mind contented, experiences happiness, which is temporary and inconstant Because, that organic happiness which exists to-day, ceases to exist tomorrow ; and what is more, that thing which our organs look upon as productive of happiness to day, becomes for some reason or other, productive of unhappiness tomorrow. For instance, the same cold water which is desirable in summer, becomes undesirable in winter ; and even if one acquires the happiness, the desire for happiness, as has been mentioned above, is never fully quenched. Therefore, although the world 'happiness' can be applied comprehensively to all kinds of happiness, yet, one has to differentiate between happiness and happiness. In ordinary practice, the word ' happiness ' means principally ' organic happiness'. But when it becomes necessary to differentiate between the happiness of the enjoyment of objects of pleasure from that happiness which is beyond the organs, that is, which is beyond organic happiness, and which can be realised only by the self- engrossed Reason, the Material Happiness which consists of the enjoyment of objects of pleasure, is called simply ' happiness ' (suhkam or preyas), and the Metaphysical Happiness which is born of Self -Realisation (atma-buddhi-prasadaja) is called " beatific happiness ' ( sreyas, blessing ( kalyanam), amelioration (hitam ), beatitude (ananda), or peace ( santi). The distinction made between 'preyas' and 'sreyas' by Naciketa in the sentence from the Kathopanisad quoted at the end of the last chapter, has been made on this basis.
References And Context
- (Gi. 18. 37);
- (Gi. 18. 38.);
- (Gi. 6. 25)