Gita Rahasya -Tilak
THE CONSIDERATION OF HAPPINESS AND UNHAPPINESS
that is, " by enjoying objects of pleasure, the desire for the objects of pleasure is not satisfied, but on the other hand this desire grows more and more, just as fire burns more and more by sacrificial offerings being thrown into it " ; and the same stanza is to be found in the Manu-Smrti . The inner reason for this is that, notwithstanding the abundance of means of pleasure, the desire for happiness is never quenched only by enjoying happiness, in as much as the hunger of the organs is always on a rising scale, and it has to be restrained in some other way; and this principle has been fully accepted by our religious writers who have in the first place prescribed that every one must put a restraint on the enjoyment of pleasure. If those who say that enjoyment of objects of pleasure is the highest goal in this world apply their mind to this doctrine which is based on experience, they will easily realise the absurdity of their beliefs. This doctrine of the Vedic religion has also been accepted in the Buddhistic religion and there is a statement in the Buddhistic treatises that the following words came out of the mouth of the king named Mandhata mentioned in the Puranas (instead of Yayati) at the moment of his death : —
na kahapanavassena titti kamesu vijjati I
api dibbesu kamesu, ratim so nadhigacchati II . that is, "although coins called 'karsapana' fall as a shower of rain, there is no satisfaction (titti means trpti) of Desire, and the desires of a desirer are not satisfied even by getting- the happiness of heaven ". As it is thus impossible that the happiness of enjoying objects of pleasure can ever be con- sidered sufficient, every man thinks that 'I am unhappy', and when this mental frame of mankind is taken into account then, as stated in the Mahabharata :-—
sukhad bahutaram duhkham jivite nasti samsayah l  that is , " in this life (samsara), unhappiness is more than happiness "; or as stated by the Saint Tukaram : " if you consider happiness, it is as small as a grain; and if you con- sider unhappiness, it is as big as a mountain  The same is the doctrine laid down by the writers of the' Upanisads , and it is stated also in the Gita that the life of man is inconstant and the 'home of unhappiness',. and that life in the world is not lasting and is ' devoid of happiness ' . The same is the opinion of the German philosopher Schopenhauer, and he has made use of a. very curious illustration for proving it. He says that we measure the happiness of a man by considering how many of his desires for happiness, out of the total possible desires for happiness, are satisfied; and if the enjoyment of happiness- falls short of the desire for happiness, we say that the man is- to that extent unhappy.
References And Context
- (Manu. 2. 94)
- (Dhammapada, 186-187)
- (San. 305. 6; 330. 16).
- (Tuka. Ga. 2986).
- (Maitryu 1. 2-4)
- (Gi. 8. 15 and 9. 3)