Bhagavadgita -Radhakrishnan 237

The Bhagavadgita -S. Radhakrishnan

The Three Modes Applied to Religious Phenomena

15. anudvegakararam vakyam
satyam priyahitam ca yat
svadhydyabhyasanam cai 'va
vanmayam tapa ucyate
(15) The utterance (of words) which gives no offence, which is truthful, pleasant and beneficial and the regular recitation of the Veda this is said to be the penance of speech Cp. "Of what is disagreeable and beneficial the speaker and the hearer are hard to find.[1]

16. rnanahprasadah saumyatvam
maunam atmavinigraha
bhavasarhguddhir ity etat
tapo manasam ucyate
(16) Serenity of mind, gentleness, silence, self-control, the purity of mind this is called the penance of mind.

17. graddhaya paraya taptarn
tapas tat trividham naraill
aphaldka~zksibhir yuktaiz
scittvt halls
(17) This threefold penance practised with utmost faith by men of balanced mind without the expectation of reward, they call "good."

18. satkaramanapuyartham
tapo dambhena cai 'va yat
kriyate tad iha proktam
rajasam calam adhruvam
(18) That penance which is performed in order to gain respect, honour and reverence and for the sake of show is said to be "passionate" ; it is unstable and not lasting.

19. mudhagrahena 'tmano yat
pidaya kriyate tapah
parasyo 'tsadanartham va
tat tamasam udahrtam
(19) That penance which is performed with a foolish obstinacy by means of self-torture or for causing injury to others is said to be "dull." Now the three kinds of gifts follow.

Three Kinds of Gifts
20. aatavyam its yad danam
diyate 'nupakarine
dege kale ca patre ca
tad danam sattvikaam smrtam
(20) That gift, which is made to one from whom no return is expected, with the feeling that it is one's duty to give and which is given in proper place and time and to a worthy person, that gift is held to be "good." It will lead to complete self-giving, atmasamarpana Gifts to the poor not only help the poor but help the givers. He who gives receives.

21. yat tu pratyupakarartham
phalam udisya va punah
diyate ca pariklistam tam
tad danam rajasam smrtam
(21) But that gift which is made with the hope of a return or with the expectation of future gain or when it hurts to give, is held to be "passionate "

22. adesakale yad danayn
apatrebhyas. ca diyute
asatkrtam avajnatam
tat tansasam udahrtam
(22) And that gift which is made at a wrong place or time or to an unworthy person, without proper ceremony or with contempt, that is declared to be "dull "

The Mystical Utterance: Aum Tat Sat
23. aum tat sad nirdeso
brahmanas trividhah smrtah
rahmanas tena vedas ca
yapnag ca vihltah pura
(23) "Aum Tat Sat" this is considered to be the threefold symbol of Brahman By this were ordained of old the Brahmins, the Vedas and the sacrifices
See III , 10. "Aum" expresses the absolute supremacy, "tat" the universality and "sat" the reality of Brahman. The Taitttriya Up. says,'sacca tyaccabhavat. "[2] It became sat (which is existent) and tat (that which is beyond). It is the cosmic universe as well as that which is beyond it. It stands for the three states of consciousness, waking (jagrat), dream (svapna) and sleep (susupti) leading up to the transcendental state (turiya). See Mandukya Up. See also B.G., VII, 8 and VIII i ;.


References and Context

  1. apriyasya ca pathyasya vakta srota hi durlabhah. M.B. .Santi parva, 63, 17. If you your lips would keep from slips Five things observe with care; Of what you speak, to whom you speak, And how, and when, and where. "Uncensored Recollections." (See Thirlby Hall, by W. E. Norris, Vol. I, p. 35.)
  2. II, 6.