Gita Rahasya -Tilak 209

Karma Yoga Sastra -Tilak


As this Spirit is 'beyond' both the Mutable and the Immutable, that is, beyond the Perceptible and the Imperceptible, it is properly called[1] 'the Absolute Spirit' (purusottama). Even in the Mahabharata, Bhrgu has said to Bharadvaja as follows in defining the word 'Paramatman':

atma ksetrajna ity uktah samyuktah prakrtair gunaih I

tair eva tu vinirmuktah paramatmety udahrtah II [2]. that is, "when the Atman is imprisoned within the body, it is called Ksetrajna (or Jivatman, i. e. personal Self) ; and when the same Atman is released from these 'prakrta' qualities, that is, from the qualities of Matter or of the body, it is known as the Paramatman (Absolute Self)". One is likely to think that these two definitions of the 'Paramatman' are different from each other ; but really speaking, they are not so. As there is only one Paramatman, which is beyond the Mutable and Immutable Cosmos, and also beyond the Jiva (or, beyond both imperceptible Matter and Spirit, according to the Samkhya philosophy) a two-fold characteristic or definition of one and the same Paramatman can he given, by once saying that It is beyond the Mutable and the Immutable, and again saying that It is beyond Jiva (Soul) or the Jivatman (i. e. Purusa). Bearing this aspect in mind, Kalidasa has described the Paramesvara in the Kumarasambhava in the following words : "You are the Matter which exerts itself for the benefit of the Spirit, and You are also the Spirit which, apathetic Itself, observes that Matter" (Kuma. 2. 13). So also, the Blessed Lord has said in -the Gita: "mama yonir mahadbrahma" , i.e., "Matter is My generative principle (yoni) or only one of My forms" (14. 3) and that "Jiva or Soul is a part of Ms" (15. 7); and in the seventh chapter, the Blessed Lord says : —

bhumir apo 'nalo vayuh kham meno buddhir eva ca I

ahamkara itiyam me bhinna prakrtir astadha II


that is, "the earth, water, fire, air, ether, the Mind, Reason, and Individuation is My eightfold Prakrti" ; besides this (apareyam itastv anyam), "that Jiva (Soul) which is maintaining the whole of this world is also My second Prakrti" [4]. The twenty- five Samkhya elements have been referred to in many places in "the Mahabharata. Nevertheless, it is stated in each place that there is beyond these twenty-five elements an Absolute Element (paramatattva), which is the twenty-sixth (sadvimsa) Element, and that a man does not become a ' buddna ' (scient) unless he has realized It [5].


References And Context

  1. (See Gi. 15. 18)
  2. (Ma. Bha. San. 187. 24)
  3. (GI. 7. 4).
  4. (Gi. 7. 5)
  5. (San. 308)