Gita Rahasya -Tilak
THE INTUITIONIST SCHOOL AND THE CONSIDERATION OF THE BODY AND THE ATMAN
(ADHIDAIVATA-PAKSA AND KSETRA-KSETRAJNA-VICARA)
Besides the words 'buddhih' and 'manas', the other words 'antahkaranam' and 'cittam' are also in vogue. As the word antahkaranam out of these means the internal (i. e., antah) organ (i. e., karanam or indriyam),' it usually includes the means (Mind), buddih (Reason), cittam. (Consciousness) and afta«fraram(Egoism) etc; and when the Mind first contemplates external objects, it becomes cittam, (i. e,, (Consciousness),  But, as in ordinary parlance these words are used as being synonymous, there is very often a confusion as to what meaning is intended in which place. In order that such a confusion should not arise, only the two words Mind and Reason, out of the various words mentioned above, are used in scientific terminology in the specific meanings mentioned above. When in this way a differentiation has been made between the Mind and the Reason, the Reason in its capacity of a judge, necessarily becomes superior to the Mind, and the Mind becomes the clerk of the Reason.
This is the purport of the following words, used in the Gita, namely, "manasas tu para budahih", i. e„ ' the Reason is superior to or beyond the Mind"  Never- theless, even this clerk has, as mentioned above, to perform two. different functions ; the first of these is to properly arrange all the impressions which have come from outside, through the medium of the- organs of perception, and to place those impressions' before the Reason for decision; and the second one is to carry "the order Or the message of the Reason to the organs of Action after the Reason has arrived at a decisionand make these organs perform those external Actions which are necessary to be performed for carrying out the decision of the Reason. Just as very often in a shop, the duty of purchasing merchandise for the shop and also the duty of sitting in the shop and selling the goods are both carried out by one and the same clerk, so also is the case with the Mind. Suppose, you see a friend of yours and being inspired with the desire of calling him, you say to him 'hullo !' ; then, let us see what are the various functions which are carried out in your antahkaranam. First, your eyes, that is, the organ of perception, have sent a message to the Reason through the medium of the Mind that your friend is near you, and that knowledge is conveyed through the Reason to your Atman. Here, the first function, namely, of the acquisition of knowledge, is over. Then the Atman, through the medium of the Reason decides to call the friend ; next, the desire to speak springs into the Mind in order to execute the decision of the Reason, and the Mind causes the word 'hullo !' to be uttered by the organ of Action. In the Siksa-grantha of Panini, the function of the utterance of words has been described on that basis as follows :—
atma buddhya sametyarthan mano yunkte vivaksaya I
manah kayagnim ahanti sa prerayati marutam I
marutas turasi caran mandram janayati svaram II
References And Context
- (Ma. Bha. San. 274. 17).
- (Gi. 3. 42).