THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE ABSOLUTE SELF
In short, even if the Parabrahman possesses some qualities other than those which are ascribed to it by our organs, it is not possible for us to know them ; and saying that the Para- brahman does possess qualities is illogical, if it is impossible for us to know those qualities. Therefore, Vedantists understand the word ' guna ' as meaning 'qualities which are knowable by human beings’ and formulate the proposition that the Brahman is ' quality less , in this sense. Non-dualistic Vedanta does not say that the fundamental Parabrahman cannot possess qualities or powers which are beyond the imagination of human beings, and no one, as a matter of fact, can say that. Nay, even the Vedantists say that the ignorance of the organs or Maya, which was mentioned above, must be an unimaginable power of that fundamental Parabrahman. The three-constituented Maya or Prakrti is not some independent substance ; but, what happens is that the human organs, as a result of ignorance, ascribe (make an adhyaropa of) a qualityful appearance to one homogeneous, and quality- less Brahman. This theory is known as ' VIVARTA-VADA '. The explanation given by the Non-Dualistic Vedantists as to how the variegated qualityful universe first came to be seen if the qualityless Brahman was the only Fundamental Substance, is as follows . — The Kanada Nyaya philosophy propounds the doctrine that innumerable atoms are the funda- mental cause of the universe, and the followers of Nyaya philosophy consider these atoms to be Real.