Gita Rahasya -Tilak 229

Gita Rahasya -Tilak


In the same way, the meaning of the 16th and 17th stanzas of the second chapter of the Gita is the same. "When, in Vedanta philosophy, the ornament is referred, to as 'mithya' (illusory) and the gold as 'satya' (real), one has not to understand that comparison as meaning that the ornament is useless, or invisible to the eyes, or totally false,, that is, mere earth to which gold foil has been attached, or not in existence at all. The word 'mithya' has been used there with reference to the qualities of colour, form etc., and of appearance of an object, that is, to its external appearance, and not to the fundamental substance; because, as must be borne in mind, the fundamental substance is always 'satya (Real). The Vedantist has to ascertain what the fundamental substance underlying the covering of Name and Form of various objects is ; and that is the real subject-matter of philosophy. Even in ordinary life, we see that although a large sum may have been spent by us on labour for manufacturing a particular ornament, yet, it" one is forced to sell that ornament to a merchant in adverse circumstances, the merchant says to us: "I do not take into account what expenses you have incurred per tola for manufacturing the ornament ; if you are prepared to sell me this ornament as gold by weight, I will buy it" I If the same idea is to be conveyed in Vedanta terminology, we will have to say that, "the merchant sees the ornament to be illusory, and only the gold to be real". In the same way, if one wishes to sell a newly built house, the purchaser pays no attention to what amount has been spent for giving that house prettiness (rupa = form), or convenience of arrangement (akrti= construction), and says that the house should be sold to him by the value of the timber and other material which has been used in constructing the house. My readers will get a clear idea from the above illustrations about the meaning of the reference by Vedantists to the Name-d and Form-ed ( namarupatmaka ) world as illusory and to the Brahman as real. When one says that the visible world is 'mithya' (illusory), one is not to be understood as meaning that it is not visible to the eyes ; the real meaning is that the numerous appearances of various objects in the world resulting from Time or Space and diversified by Name and Form are perishable, that is, ' mithya ' and that that imperishable and immutable substance which exists eternally under the cloak of this Name and Form is permanent and real. The merchant considers bangles, anklets, chain, armlets, and other ornaments as ' mithya ' ( illusory ) and gold alone as satya ( real ). But in the factory of the goldsmith of the world, various Names and Forms are given to one and the same Fundamental Substance, and' such various ornaments as gold, stone, timber, water, air etc. are formed out of that Substance. Therefore, the Vedantist goes a little deeper than the ordinary merchant, and looks upon all Names and Forms,, such as, gold, silver, or stone etc. as mithya ( illusory ), and looks upon the Fundamental Substance being the substratum of all those objects, that is, the Thing- in-itself ( vastu-tattva )- as ' satya ' ( immutable or real ).


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