Gita Rahasya -Tilak 220

Gita Rahasya -Tilak


The Blessed Lord has said to Arjuna in clear and unmistakable terms that : "as a result of MOHA (ignorance) arising from the qualities of Prakrti, FOOLISH PEOPLE consider the (imperceptible and qualityless) Atman as the performer of Actions" ([1]; the Isvara does nothing, and people are deceived as a result of IGNORANCE [2] ; that is to say, though the imperceptible Atman or the Absolute Isvara is fundamentally qualityless [3], people as a result of 'confusion' or 'ignorance' foist on Him, qualities like activity etc., and make Him qualityful and imperceptible [4]. From this, it follows that the true- doctrines of the Gita about the form of the Paramesvara are- that : — (1) though there is any amount of description of the- perceptible form of the Paramesvara in the Gita, yet. His fundamental and superior form is imperceptible and qualityless and people look upon Him as qualityful by IGNORANCE or MOHA ; (2) the Samkhya Prakrti is His perceptible diffusion that is to say, the whole of this cosmos is the ILLUSION of the Paramesvara ; and (3) the Samkhya Purusa, that is, the personal Self, is fundamentally of the same form as the Paramesvara, and is qualityless and inactive -like the- Paramesvara, but people consider him as a doer (kartaj as a result of IGNORANCE. The same are the doctrines of Vedanta philosophy. But in later Vedanta treatises, some amount of distinction is made between Maya (illusion) and Avidya (ignorance) in enunciating these doctrines. For instance, in the Pancadasi, it is stated in the beginning, that the Atman and the Parabrahman are originally identical, that is, are both of the form of the Brahman, and that when this Brahman, in the form of Consciousness (cit) is reflected in the form of Maya (Illusion), Prakrti composed of the sattva, rajas and tamas-- constituents (the Saihkhya fundamental Prakrti) comes into existence. But later on, this Maya is subdivided into 'maya' (illusion) and 'avidya' (ignorance) ; and it is stated that we have Pure maya when the pure (suddha) sattva component, out of the three components of this Maya is preponderant, and the Brahman which is reflected in this pure maya, is called the qualityful or perceptible Isvara (Hiranya-garbha); and, if this sattva component is impure (asuddha), that Maya becomes 'avidya' (ignorance^ and the Brahman which is reflected in it is given the name of 'jiva' [5]. From this point of view, it is necessary to make a two-fold distinction between one and the same Maya, by looking upon maya as the cause of the 'perceptible Isvara' springing out of the Parabrahman, and 'avidya' as the cause of the 'Jiva' springing but of the Parabrahman. But, this distinction has not been made in the Gita. The Gita says that the Jiva becomes confused (7. 4-15) as a result of the same Maya by means of which the Blessed Lord takes up his perceptible or qualityful form (7. 25), or by means of which the eight-fold Prakrti, that is, all the various objects in the world are born from Him (4. 6). The word ' avidya ' does not occur anywhere in the Gita, and where it appears in the Svetasva- taropanisad, it is used to signify the diffusion of Maya [6].


References And Context

  1. Gi. 3. 27-29)
  2. (Gl. 5. 15)
  3. (Gl. 13. 31)
  4. (Gi. 7. 24)
  5. (Panca. 1. 15-17)
  6. (Sveta 5. 1)

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