Gita Rahasya -Tilak 217

Gita Rahasya -Tilak


In some places, this Brahman is defined so as to include all qualities in only three qualities, as in the following expressions: "satyam jnanam anantain brahma" [1], or " vijnanam anandam brahma"[2], or that the Brahman is of the form of satya (sat), jnana (cit), ananda (joy), or is ' saccidananda' in form. And in other places, there are descriptions which include mutually contradictory qualities, in the same way as in the Bhagavadgita, like the following: "the Brahman is neither sat (real) nor asat, i. e., illusory" [3], or is "anor aniyan mahato mahiyan", that is, smaller than an atom and larger than the largest [4], or "tad ejati tannaijati tad dure, tad antike", that is, "It does not move and yet It moves, It is far away and yet It is near [5], or "It has the appearance of possessing the qualities of all organs" ( sarvendriyagunabhasa ), and yet is ' sarvendriyavivarjita ', i. e., devoid of all organs [6]. Mrtyu, in advising Naciketa, has kept aside all these descriptions, and said that the Brahman is something which is beyond righteousness, beyond that which is done and that which has not been done, and beyond that which has happened and that which is capable of happening, i. e., 'bhavya' [7]; and similar descriptions are given by Brahmadeva to Rudra in the chapter on the Narayanlya religion in the Mahabharata [8]; and by Narada to Suka in the chapter on Moksa (331. 44). Even in the Brhadaranyakopanisad [9], it is stated in the beginning that there are three iconical forms of the Brahman, namely, earth, water, and fire and two non-iconical forms, namely, air and ether ; and it is then stated that the forms or colours of the ether-formed (sarabhuta) spirits into which these non-iconical forms are transformed, ohange; and it is ultimately stated that "neti, , neti", that is, " It is not this ", " It is not this ", that is to say, whatever has been described so far, is not the Brahman; the Parabrahman is something which is beyond (para) this non- iconical or iconical substance (which can be identified by Name and Form) , and is ‘agrhya', i. e., incomprehensible, and 'avarnaniya ', i. e., indescribable [10]. Nay, the Brahman is that which is beyond all objects whatsoever which can be named; and the words "neti, neti", that is, "It is not this, It is not this" have become a short symbol to show the imperceptible and quality less form of that Brahman; and the same description has appeared four times in the Brhadaranyakopanisad [11]; and in the same way, there are also descriptions in other Upanisads of the quality less and unimaginable form of the Parabrahman, such as, "yato vaco nivarlante aprapya manasa saha" (Taitti. 2. 9), or "adresyam (adrsya), agrahyam" [12], or "na caksusa grhyate na 'pi vaca [13], that is, "That which is not visible- to the eyes, and which cannot be described by speech", or:

asabdam asparsam arpam avyayam

tatha rasam nityam agandhavac ca yat I

anady anantam mahatah param dhruvam

nicayya tan mrtyumukhat pramucyate II

that is, It does not possess the five qualities of sound, touch, colour, taste, and smell, which are possessed by the five primordial elements, and is without beginning, without end, and imperishable [14].


References And Context

  1. (Taitti. 2. 1)
  2. (Br. 3. 9. 28)
  3. (Rg. 10. 129)
  4. (Katha 2.20)
  5. (Isa 5: Mun. 3. 1. 7)
  6. (Sveta. 3. 17)
  7. (Katha 2. 14)
  8. (Ma. Bha. San. 351. 11.)
  9. (Br. 2. 3. 2)
  10. (Br. 2. 3. 7 and Ve. Su. 3. 2. 22)
  11. (Brha. 3. 2. 29 ; 4. 2. 4 ; 4. 4. 22; and 4. 5. 15)
  12. (Mun. 1. 1.6)
  13. (Mun, 3. 1. 8)
  14. (See Ve. Su. 3. 2. 22-30)