Karma Yoga Sastra -Tilak
THE INTUITIONIST SCHOOL AND THE CONSIDERATION OF THE BODY AND THE ATMAN
(ADHIDAIVATA-PAKSA AND KSETRA-KSETRAJNA-VICARA)
The Mind and the Reason are the means or the organs for thought. If the gross Body does not possess movement (cetana), in the form of Vitality ( pranah ) in addition to these, it will be just the same whether the Mind and the Reason exist or not. Therefore, it is necessary to include one more element in the Body in addition to these other things, namely, Movement (cetana). The word 'cetana', is sometimes also used as meaning the same thing as 'caitanyam' ( Consciousness ). But one must bear in mind that the word cetana has not been used in the sense of caitanyam in the present context, 'cetana here means the movement, activity, or the vital motion of the Life forces seen in the gross Body. That cicchaktih ( Power of Consciousness ) by means of which movement or activity is created even in Gross Matter, is known as caitanyam ; and we have now to consider what that Power is. That factor which gives rise to the distinction between "mine", and "other's" which is to be seen in the Body in addition to its Vital activity or Movement, is a different quality altogether; Because, in as much as the Reason is only an organ which comes to a decision after proper consideration, Individuation (ahamkarah), which is at the root of the distinction between one's and another's, must be looked upon as something different from Reason. Like and dislike, pain and happiness, and other correlative couplets (dvamdvam) are the properties of the Mind. But as the Nyaya school looks upon these as properties of the Atman, Vedanta philosophy includes them among the properties of the Mind in order to clear that misunderstanding. In the same way, that fundamental element in the shape of Matter ( prakrti ), from which the five primordial elements have sprung, is also included in the Body  That Power by which all these elements are controlled or kept steady, is again a different power  and it is called 'dhrti' (co-hesion). That amalgamated product which results from the combination of all these things is scientifically called the 'savikara sarira' (activated Body), or 'ksetra' ; and this is what we, in ordinary parlance, call the activated (savikara) human body, or the pinda. I have defined the word ' ksetra ' in this way, consistently with the Gita. But in mentioning the qualities Desire, Hate etc., this definition is sometimes more or less departed from. For instance, in the conversation between Janaka and Sulabha, in the Santi parva (San. 320), the five organs of Action have not been mentioned in the definition of the Body, but instead of them the six qualities of Time-feeling (kala), Realisation of Good and Evil (sad-asad-bhavah). Method (vidhih), Vitality (sukram), and Strength (bala) have been mentioned.
References And Context
- (Gl. 13. 5, 6).
- (Gl. 18. 33),