Gita Rahasya -Tilak
THE CONSIDERATION OF HAPPINESS AND UNHAPPINESS
that is, " all that which is subject to the control of others (external objects) is unhappiness, and all that which is subject to the control of oneself (of one's mind) is happiness ; these are in brief the characteristic features of pain and happiness". The word 'suffering' (vedana) used in the connotation of pain and happiness given by the Nyaya school, includes both physical and mental suffering, and it also shows the actual external nature of pain and happiness ; and when one bears in mind that Manu is referring principally to the internal experience of pain and happiness, there remains no incon- sistency between these two definitions. When in this way, we do not make the experience of pain or happiness depend on. the organs :
bhaisajyam etad duhkhasya yad etan nanucintayet ;
that is, " not brooding on one's unhappiness, becomes the most potent medicine for doing away with unhappiness"; and we find numerous illustrations in history, of people having hardened their minds, and willingly sacrificed their lives for the sake of their Religion or of Truth. There- fore, says the Gita, when one does what one has to do with- perfect mental control and after giving up the DESIRE FOR THE RESULT (phalasa) and with a frame of mind which is equal towards pain and happiness, there remains no fear or possibility of experiencing the unhappiness of Actions, and it does not become necessary to give them up. Giving up the desire for the result does not mean giving up the resulting benefit, if it has been acquired, nor entertaining a desire that no one should ever get that benefit. In the same way, there is a world for difference between the desire for the result and the Desire, Hope, or Motive for performing Action, or employing a particular means for obtaining a particular result. There is a difference between merely desiring to move one's hands and feet and desiring to move one's hands for catching or one 's feet for kicking some one else. The first desire extends merely to the doing of the act and there is no other motive behind it ; and if we give up this desire, all Action will come to an end. Besides having this desire, a man must also have the knowledge that every act is sure to have some result or consequence; and not only must he have that knowledge, but he must entertain the desire of doing a. particular act with the intention of thereby producing some particular result; otherwise, all his Actions will be as pointless as those of a madman.
References And Context
- (Ma. Bha. San. 205. 2 )