Gita Rahasya -Tilak
THE CONSIDERATION OF HAPPINESS AND UNHAPPINESS
As has been stated above, Thirst or discontent is the seed of future prosperity : and therefore, instead of attempting to kill an innocent man out of fear for a thief, one has to carefully consider what Thirst "or discontent causes- unhappiness, and adopt the skilful middle path of giving up only that particular hope, thirst or discontent which produces- unhappiness, and it is not necessary for that purpose to give up all kinds of Action whatsoever.
This device or skill (kausalam)of giving up only that hope which causes unhappiness and performing one's duties according to one's status in life is known as Yoga or Karma-yoga ; and, as that is the Yoga which has been principally dealt with in the Gita, I shall consider here in a little more detail what kind of hope has been looked upon by the Gita as productive of unhappiness. In describing above the, actual nature, of human pain and unhappiness, I have stated that a man hears by his ears, feels by his skin, sees by his eyes, tastes by his tongue, and smells by his nose ; and that a man is happy or unhappy according as these activities of his organs are consistent with their natural tendencies. But, the question of pain and happiness is not completely exhausted by making this definition. Although it is necessary that the organs should, in the first instance, come into contact with external objects in order that Material pain or happiness should arise, yet, if one considers in what way this pain or happiness is subsequently experienced by man, it will be seen that a man has ultimately to perform the function of realising, that is, of taking on himself, this pain or happi- ness, which results from the activities of the organs, by means of his Mind (manas). ' caksuh pasyati rupam mamsa na tu caksusa", i. e., " the function of seeing is not performed solely by the eyes : the assistance of the mind is absolutely necessary for it"  ; and it is stated in the Mahabhara- ta that if that mind is in pain, then even having seen is as if you have not seen, and even in the Brhadaranyakopanisad, there are such statements as : " anyatramana abhuvam nadarsam ", i. e., "my mind was elsewhere, and therefore, I did not see ", or, '"anyatramana abhuvam nasrausam", i. e., "my mind was else- where, and therefore, I did not hear " . From this it becomes clear, that in order to experience Material pain or happiness, the organs are not sufficient by themselves, but require the assistance of the Mind ; and as regards Metaphysical pain or happiness, it is purely mental. It, therefore, follows that all experience of pain or happiness ultimately depends on the Mind ; and if this is true, it naturally follows that it is not impossible to control the experience of pain or happiness if one controls the mind. With regard to these facts, Manu has described the characteristics of pain and happiness in a different way than the Nyaya school. He says :
sarvam paravasam duhkham sarvam atmavasam sukham I
etad vidyat samasena laksanam sukhaduhkhayoh II
References And Context
- ( Gi. 2. 50.)
- (Ma. Bha. San. 311. 17)
- ( Br. 1. 5. 3 )
- ( Manu. 4. 160 ).