Karma Yoga Sastra -Tilak
THE CONSIDERATION OF HAPPINESS AND UNHAPPINESS
When this classification of pain and happiness is accepted, pain, like fever etc., when it results from the disturbance of the internal ratio of wind, bile etc. in the body, and the peaceful health, which results from that inter- nal ratio being correct, fall into the category of Metaphysical (adhyatmika,) pain and happiness. Because, although this pain and happiness is bodily, that is to say, although it pertains to the gross body made up of the five primordial elements, yet, we cannot always say that it is due to the contact of the body with external objects. And therefore, even Metaphysical pain and happiness have, according to Vedanta philosophy, to be further sub-divided into bodily-metaphysical, and mental-metaphysical pain and happiness. But, if pain and happiness is, in this way further divided into bodily and mental divisions, it is no more necessary to recognise the adhidaivika pain and happiness as a distinct class.
Because, as is clear, the pain or happiness which arises as a result of the blessings or the anger of deities, has ultimately to be borne by man through his body or through his mind. I have, therefore, not followed the three-fold division of pain and happiness made in Vedanta terminology, but have adopted only the two divisions, external or bodily (bahya or sarir), and internal or mental (abhyantara or minasika); and I have in this book called all bodily pain and happiness 'adhibhautika' (physical) and all mental pain and happiness ' adhyatmika ' (Metaphysical). I have not made a third division of adhidaivika ( god-given ) pain and happiness, as has been done in books on Vedanta philosophy, because, in my opinion, this two-fold classification is more convenient for dealing scientifically with the question of pain and happi- ness; and this difference between the Vedanta terminology and my terminology must be continually borne in mind in reading the following pages. Whether we look upon pain and happiness as of two kinds or of three kinds, nobody wants pain; therefore, it is stated both in the Vedanta and the Samkhya philosophies , that preventing every kind of pain to the greatest possible extent, and obtaining the uttermost and. the permanent happiness is the highest goal' of man When in this way, the uttermost happiness has become to highest goal of man, we have naturally to consider the questions: what is to be called the uttermost, the real, and' the permanent happiness, whether or not it is possible to obtain it, and if so, when and how it can be obtained etc.; and when you begin to consider these questions, the nest question which arises is, whether pain and happiness are two independent and different kinds of sufferings, experiences, or things, as defined by the Nyaya School, or whether the. absence of the one can be referred to as the other, on the principle that ' that which is not light, is darkness '.
References And Context
- (Sam. Ka. 1: Gl. 6. 21, 22)