Bhagavadgita -Radhakrishnan 244

The Bhagavadgita -S. Radhakrishnan


31. yaya dharmam adharmam
ca karyam ca 'karyam
eva ca ayathavat prajanati
buddhih sa partha rajasi
(31) That by which one knows in a mistaken way the right and the wrong, what ought to be done and what ought not to be done that understanding, 0 Partha (Arjuna), is of the nature of "passion "

32. adharmani dharmam titi ya
manyate tamasa 'vrta
sarvarthan viparitams ca
buddhih sa partha tamasi
(32) That which, enveloped in darkness, conceives as right what is wrong and sees all things in a perverted way (contrary to the truth), that understanding, 0 Partha (Arjuna), is of the nature of "dullness "

33. dhrtya yaya dharayate
yogena `vyabhicarinya
dhrtih sa partha sãttviki
(33) The unwavering steadiness by which, through concentration, one controls the activities of the mind, the life breaths and the senses, that, 0 Partha (Arjuna), is of the nature of "goodness " dhrtih: steadiness of attention which makes us aware of much that our ordinary vision is not able to observe. Its power is proportional to our detachment from regrets over the past and anxieties for the future.

34. yaya tu dharmakamarthan
dhrtya dharayate 'rjuna
prasangena phalakanksi
dhrtih sa partha rajasi
(34) The steadiness by which one holds fast to duty, pleasure and wealth desiring the fruit in consequence thereof that, 0 Partha (Arjuna), is of the nature of "passion."

35. yaya svapnam bhayam
sokam visadam madam
eva ca na vimuñcati durmedha
dhrtih sa partha tamasi
(35) That steadiness by which a fool does not give up sleep, fear, grief, depression and arrogance, that, 0 Partha (Arjuna), is of the nature of dullness
Three Kinds of Happiness

36. sukham tv tdanim trividhci
srnu me bharatarsabha
abhyasad ramate yatra
duhkhantam ca nigacchati
(36) And now hear from Me, 0 Best of the Bharatas (Arjuna), the three kinds of happiness. That in which a man comes to rejoice by long practice and in which he reaches the end of his sorrow

37. yat tad agre visam Iva
parinanne 'mrtopamam
tat sukham sattvikam
proktam atmabuddhiprasada j am
(37) That happiness which is like poison at first and like nectar at the end, which springs from a clear understanding of the Self is said to be of the nature of "goodness."

38. visayendriyasatyogad
yat tad agre 'mrtopamam
pariname Imam iva
tat sukham rajasam smrtam
(38) That happiness which arises from the contact of the senses and their objects and which is like nectar at first but like poison at the end such happiness is recorded to be "passionate."

39. yad agre ca 'nubandhe ca
sukham mohanam atmanah
tat tamasam udaahrtam
(39) That happiness which deludes the soul both at the beginning and at the end and which arises from sleep, sloth and negligence that is declared to be of the nature of "dullness." Happiness is the universal aim of life. Only it is of different kinds according to the modes which dominate our nature. If the tamas predominates in us, we are satisfied with violence and inertia, blindness and error. If rajas prevails, wealth and power, pride and glory give us happiness. True happiness of human beings lies not in the possession of outward things but in the fulfilment of the higher mind and spirit, in the development of what is most inward in us. It may mean pain and restraint but
it will lead us to joy and freedom. We can pass from the happiness of knowledge and virtue to the eternal calm and joy, ananda of the spirit, when we become one with the Highest Self and one with all beings. Various Duties determined by One's Nature (Svabhava) and Station (Svadharma)


References and Context