Bhagavadgita -Radhakrishnan 241

The Bhagavadgita -S. Radhakrishnan


14. adhisthanam tatha karta
karanam ca p thagvidham
vividhas ca Prthakcesta
daivam cai 'va 'tra pancamam
(14) The seat of action and likewise the agent, the instruments of various sorts, the many kinds of efforts and providence being the fifth
adhisfhana or the seat refers to the physical body. karta agent. He is, according to 8 , the phenomenal ego, upeidhilaksano avidyakalpito bhokta, the psychophysical self which mistakes the organism for the true self ; for R it is the individual self, the jivatman; for Madhva, it is the supreme Lord Visnu. The karta or the agent is one of the five causes of action. According to the Samkhya doctrine, purusa or the self is a mere witness. Though, strictly speaking, the self is akartr or non-doer, still its witnessing starts the activities of prakrti and so the self is included among the determining causes cesta: efforts: functions of the vital energies within the body.
daivam: providence : represents the non-human factor that interferes and disposes of human effort. It is the wise, all-seeing will that is at work in the world In all human actions, there is an unaccountable element which is called luck, destiny, fate or the force accumulated by the acts of one's past lives. It is called here
daiva.[1] The task of man is to drop a pebble into the pond of time and we may not see the ripple touch the distant shore. We may plant the seed but may not see the harvest which lies inhands higher than our own. Daiva or the superpersonal fate is the
general cosmic necessity, the resultant of all that has happened in the past, which rules unnoticed. It works in the individual for its own incalculable purposes.
Belief in daiva should not be an excuse for quiescence Man is a term of transition. He is conscious of his aim, to rise from his animal ancestry to the divine ideal. The pressure of nature, heredity and environment can be overcome by the will of man.

15. sariravãñmanobhir yat
karma firarabhate narah
nyayyam va viparitam va
pancai 'te tasya hetavah
(15) Whatever action a man undertakes by his body, speech or mind, whether it is right or wrong, these five are its factors.

16. tatrai 'vam sag kartaram
atmãnañ kevalam tu yah
pasyaty akrtabuddhitvan
na sa pasyati durmatih
(16) Such being the case, the man of perverse mind who, on account of his untrained understanding, looks upon himself as the sole agent, he does not see (truly).
The agent is one factor among five and so he misapprehends the facts when he looks upon the agent as the sole cause. explains "looks on the pure self as the doer." If he attributes agency to the pure self, he misapprehends the facts. The ego is generally taken to be the doer but it is only one of the main determinants of human action, which are all the products of nature. When the ego is recognized as such, we are freed from its binding influence and we live in the greater knowledge of the Universal Self, and in that self-vision all acts are the products of prakrti.


References and Context

  1. Cp. purvajanmakrtam karma tad daivam ati kathyate. Hatopadesa.