Bhagavadgita -Radhakrishnan 236

The Bhagavadgita -S. Radhakrishnan

The Three Modes Applied to Religious Phenomena

8. ayuhsattvabalarogya-
rasyah snigdhah sthira
hrdya andrah sdttvikapriych
(8) The foods which promote life, vitality, strength, health, joy and cheerfulness, which are sweet, soft, nourishing and agreeable are dear to the "good."

9. katvamlalavanatyusna
ahara rayasasye 'sta
(9}) The foods that are bitter, sour, saltish, very hot, pungent, harsh and burning, producing pain, grief and disease are liked by the "passionate."

10. yataydram gatarasam
puti paryusitam ca yat
ucchistam api ca 'medhyam
bhojanam tamasapriyam
(10) That which is spoiled, tasteless, putrid, stale, refuse and unclean is the food dear to the "dull "
As the body is built up of the food taken, the quality of food is important.[1]

Three Kinds of Sacrifice
11. aphalcakanhsibhir
yajno vidhidrsto ya ijyate
yastavyam eve 'ti manah
samadhaya sa sattvikah
(11) That sacrifice which is offered, according to the scriptural law, by those who expect no reward and believe firmly that it is their duty to offer the sacrifice, is "good."
The yajna of the Gita is not the same as the ceremonial sacrifice of the Veda. It is sacrificial action in general by which man dedicates his wealth and deeds to the service of the One Life in all. People with such a sacrificial spirit will accept even death gladly, though unjustly meted out to them, so that the world may grow through their sacrifice. Savitri tells Yama that good people maintain the world through their suffering and sacrifice. santo bhumim tapasa dharayanti.
aphalakanksibhzh: those who expect no reward. They do the right but are indifferent to the consequences. A Socrates or a Gandhi is concerned only whether he is doing right or wrong, acting the part of a good man or of a bad, and not whether he has a chance of living or dying.

12. abhisarimdhdya tu phalam
dambadrtham api cal 'va
yat ljyate bharatagrestha
tam yajnam viddhi rajasam
(12) but that which is offered in expectation of reward or for the sake of display, know, 0 best of the Bharatas (Arjuna), that sacrifice to be "passionate."

13. vidhihinam asrstannam
mantrahinam adaksinam
sraddhavirahitarh yajnam
tamasam paricaksate
(13) The sacrifice which is not in conformity with the law, in which no food is distributed, no hymns are chanted and no fees are paid, which is empty of faith, they declare to be "dull." The distribution of food and the payment of fee are symbolic of help to others without which all work is self-regarding.

Three Kinds of Penance
14. devadvijaguru pujanam
saucam arjavam
brahmacaryam ahimsa ca
sariram tapa ucyate
(14) The worship of the gods, of the twice-born, of teachers and of the wise, purity, uprightness, continence and non-violence, this is said to be the penance of the body.


References and Context

  1. Chandogya Up., VII, 26, 2, ahara suddhau sattvasuddhih where sattva means antahharana. The kind of diet we take has Its Influence on our power of sell-Control. Cp vai`va"mitra-parasara-prabhrtayah vatambuparnas`anah tepi strimukhapanhalam sulahtam drstvaiva moham gatath .alyannam dadhiduguhagoghrtayutam ye bhunjate manavah tesam indriyanigraho yadi bhavet, vindhyas taret sagaram.