15. jnanayajnena cã 'ph anye
yaanto mam upasate
(15) Others again sacrifice with the sacrifice of wisdom and worsiip Me as the one, as the distinct and as the manifold, facing in all directions.
S. thinks that three classes of worshippers are mentioned here. R. and Madhva hold that only one class is mentioned. Tilak thinks that Advaita, Dvaita and Viistadvaita are meant.
Men worship the Supreme facing us in all ways, as one with all existences and at the same time as separate from them.
16. aham kratur aham yajnam
svadha 'ham aham ausadham
mantro 'ham aham eva 'jyam
aham agmir aham h,utam
(16) I am the ritual action, I am the sacrifice, I am the ancestral oblation, I am the (medicinal) herb, I am the (sacred) hymn, I am also the melted butter, I am the fire and I am the offering.
Ausadha or herb stands for the food of all creatures. The Vedic sacrifice is interpreted as an offering of our whole nature, an entire selfgiving to the Universal Self. What we receive from Him, we give back to Him. The gift and the surrender are both His.
17. pita 'ham asya jagato
mata dhata pitamahah
vedyam pavitram aumkara
rk sama yajur eva ca
(17) I am the father of this world, the mother, the supporter and the grand.sire I am the object of knowledge, the purifier I am the syllable Aum and I am the rk, the sama and the yajus as well
18. gatir bharta prabhuh saksi
nivasah saranam suhrt
prabhavah pralayah sthanam
nidhanam bijam avyayam
(18) (I am) the goal, the upholder, the lord, the witness, the abode, the refuge and the friend. (I am) the origin and the dissolution, the ground, the resting place and the imperishable seed
Cp. "I take refuge in the Buddha. He is my refuge."
19. tapamy ham aham varsam
nigrhnamy utsrjami ca
am tam cai 'va mrtyus ca sad
asac ca 'ham arjuna
(19) I give heat; I withhold and send forth the rain. I am immortality and also death, I am being as well as non-being, 0 Arjuna.
Cp. Rg. Veda: yasya chaya amrtam yasya mrtyuh:
Sat is the absolute reality and asat is the cosmic existence and the Supreme is both. He is being when manifested and non-being when the world is unmanifested.
R. explains sat as present existence and asat as past and future existence.
The main idea is that the Supreme Lord grants our prayers in whatever form we worship Him.