Bhagavadgita -Radhakrishnan 154

The Bhagavadgita -S. Radhakrishnan

The True Yoga

6. bandhur atma 'tmanas tasya
yena 'tmai 'via 'tmana jitah
anatnanas to Satrutve
varteta 'atma 'vac satruvat

(6) For him who has conquered his (lower) self by the (higher) Self his Self is a friend but for him who has not possessed his (higher) Self, his very Self will act in enmity, like an enemy
We are called upon to master the lower self by the higher. The determinism of nature is here qualified by the power to control nature. The lower self is not to be destroyed. It can be used as a helper, if it is held in check
7. jitatmanah pragantasya
paramatmu samahitah
tatha manapamenayoh

(7) When one has conquered one's self (lower) and has attained to the calm of self-mastery, his Supreme Self abides ever concentrate, he is at peace in cold and heat, in pleasure and pain, in honor and dishonor This is the state of blessedness of the person who has established himself in unity with the Universal Self. He is a jitatman whose calm and serenity are not disturbed by the pains of the opposites.
paramatma samahitah: S. says that the Supreme Self regards him as His very self.[1] The self in the body is generally absorbed by the world of dualities, cold and heat, pain and pleasure but when it controls the senses and masters the world, the self becomes free. The Supreme Self is not different from the self in the body. When the self is bound by the modes of prakrti or nature, it is called ksetrajna; when it is freed from them, the same self is called the Supreme Self[2] This is certainly the position of Advaita (non-dual) Vedanta
Those who are opposed to this view break up paramatma into two words, param and atma, and look upon the word param as an adverb qualifying the verb samahitah.
R. takes param as an adverb and holds that the self is sublimely realized.
Sridhara says that such a person becomes concentrated in his self.[3] Anandagiri holds that the self of such a person becomes completely concentrated. [4] firmly directed to equality. This is not, however, the usual explanation.

8. jnanavjcianatrptatma
kutastho vijitendriyal
uktah city ucyate yogi
(8) The ascetic (yogi) whose soul is satisfied with wisdom and knowledge, who is unchanging and master of his senses, to whom a clod, a stone and a piece of gold are the same, is said to be controlled (in yoga).
Jnana vijnana: see III, 41 note.
kutastha: literally, set on a high place, immovable, changeless, firm, steady, tranquil The yogi is said to be yucca or m yoga when he is concentrating on the Supreme above the changes of the world. Such a yogi is satisfied with the knowledge and experience of the Reality behind the appearances. He is unperturbed by things and happenings of the world and is therefore said to be equal-minded to the events of this changing world.


References and Context

  1. saksat atmabhavena vartate.
  2. Cp. M.B. atma hsetrajna ity uktah samyuktah prakrtair gunaih fair eva tu vinirmuktah paramatmety udahrtah. antiparva, I87, 24.
  3. samahitah atmamsthah bhavati.
  4. sam-a"-hita cp. samadhi : jitatman nirvikaraciota's yak atm., citian param utkarsena samahitah samadhim pra jtah bhavati