Bhagavadgita -Radhakrishnan 15

The Bhagavadgita -S. Radhakrishnan

4. Ultimate Reality

The Real is the supracosmic, eternal, spaceless, timeless Brahman who supports this cosmic manifestation in space and time. He is the Universal Spirit, Paramatman, who ensouls the cosmic forms and movements. He is the Paramevara who presides over the individual souls and movements of nature and controls the cosmic becoming. He is also the Purusottama, the Supreme Person, whose dual nature is manifested in the evolution of the cosmos. He fills our being, illumines our understanding and sets in motion its hidden springs[1]

All things partake of the duality of being and non-being from Puruottama downwards. Even God has the element of negativity or maya. though He controls it. He puts forth His active nature (svam prakrtim) and controls the souls who work out their destinies along lines determined by their own natures. While all this is done by the Supreme through His native power exercised in this changing world, He has 'another aspect untouched by it all. He is the impersonal Absolute as well as the immanent will.; He is the uncaused cause, the unmoved mover. While dwelling in man and nature, the Supreme is greater than both. The boundless universe in an endless space and time rests in Him and not He in it.[2].The God of the Gita cannot be identified with the cosmic process for He extends beyond it.[3]. Even in it He is manifest more in some aspects than in others The charge of pantheism in the lower sense of the term cannot be urged against the Gita view.[4] While there is one reality that is ultimately perfect, everything that is concrete and actual is not equally perfect.


References and Context

  1. He brings to the ignorant the light of knowledge, to the feeble the power of strength, to the sinner the liberation of forgiveness, to the suffering the peace of mercy, to the comfortless comfort . . Inanam ajnanam, saktir asaktanam, ksama saparadhanam, krpa duhkhinam, vatsalyam sado,sanam, silam* mandanam, arjavam kutilanam, sauhardyam dusthrdayanam, mardavam vislesabhirunam.Cp. also "Thou art joy and bliss, Thou the abode of peace : Thou dost destroy the sorrow of creatures and give them happiness." "anandamrtarupas tvam tvam ca santiniketanamharass praninam duhkham vidadhasi sada sukham.""Thou art the refuge of the weak, the saviour of the sinful." "dinanam saranam tam hi, papinam muktisadhanam."See also : "Thou who art radiance, fill me with radiance, Thou who art valour, fill me with valour : Thou who art strength, give me strength. Thou who art vitality, endow me with vitality : Thou who art wrath (against wrong), instil that wrath into me: Thouwho art fortitude, fill me with fortitude." tejo'si lejo mays dehi, viryam asi viryam mays dhehi, balam ass balam mayi dhehi, ojo'si ()Jo mays (dhehi, manyur ass manyum mays dhehi, saho'si sahorayi dhehi. ,sukla Yajur Veda, XIX, g.
  2. IX, 6, 10
  3. X, 41-2
  4. X, 21-37.