Nimbarkacharya

Shri Nimbarkacharya

Nimbarkacharya is known for propagating the Vaishnava Theology of 'Dvaitadvaita'. Shri Nimbarkacharya is believed to be the incarnation of the 'Sudarshana Chakra', the Discus weapon of Lord Krishna. Nimbarkacharya comes in the line of the Kumara Sampradaya and is believed to have lived around the 11th and 12th centuries. Born in the modern Murgarapattam in the southern Dravidian province, he was the son of Aruna and Jayanti, a very pious brahman a couple of the Tailanga order.[1]

Early Life

There lived a great ascetic named Aruna Muni in Vaiduryapattnam, on the banks of the Godavari, in Andhra Pradesh in Southern India. He had a pious wife by name Jayanti Devi. Sri Nimbarka was born of Aruna Muni and Jayanti Devi. He flourished in the eleventh century A.D. At the time of the Namakarana Samskara, the learned Brahmins gave the boy the name Niyamanandacharya. Nimbarka was also known by the names Aruna Rishi and Haripriyacharya. Aruna Muni and Jayanti Devi performed their son’s sacred thread ceremony and sent him to Rishikul for learning the Vedas, Vedangas, Darshanas, etc. Niyamanandacharya mastered the scriptures in a short time. He was a mighty genius. People from all parts of India came to see this wonderful boy.[2]

Philosophy

Nimbarka’s philosophy is known as Dvaitadvaita(duality and non duality simultaneously). According to this philosophy there are three categories of existence, Chit(Jiva or individual soul), Achit(Jagat or the world) and Ishvara(Brahman or a personal God). Chit and Achit are different from Ishvara as they have attributes(gunas) and capacities(Svabhaava) which are different from those of Ishvara. Ishvara is independent and exists by himself but Chit and Achit depend on him for their existence. At the same time they are different from him because they cannot exist independently of him. Thus Nimbarka emphasised both difference and non difference just like between the sun and its rays. Thus according to him there are three entities Brahman or Ishvara which is the controller, the chit which is the enjoyer and the achit which is the object enjoyed. This led to the establishment of the Nimbarka Sampradaya.[3]

Nimbarka identifies the Supreme Brahman with Krishna who is endowed with all auspicious qualities and is free from ignorance, passion, attachment and egoism. He has four forms or Vyuhas namely Sankarshana, Pradyumna, Vasudeva and Anirudha. He is free from all defects. He has a divine body and is full of love, beauty, charm and sweetness.

Works

Nimbarkacharya wrote the following books[3]-

  1. Vedanta Parijat Saurabh- A Bhashya on the Brahma sutras on his Dvaitadvaita Vedanta philosophy.
  2. Sadachar Prakash- A Treatise on Karma Kanda.
  3. Rahasya Shodasi- an explanation of the Shree Gopala Mantra in the form of verses.
  4. Prapanna Kalpa Valli- an explanation of the Shri Mukunda Mantra in the form of verses.
  5. Prapatti Chintamani- A treatise pertaining to supreme refuge.
  6. Prata Smarana Stotram- A devotional hymn.
  7. Dasa Shloki or KamaDhenu- The ten nectarine verses.
  8. Savisesh Nirvisesh Shri Krishna Stavam.
  9. A Commentary on the Bhagavad Gita.

References

  1. Nimbarkacharya – Biography (English) gaudiyahistory। Retrieved : 15 April, 2016।
  2. Nimbarkacharya (English) sivanandaonline। Retrieved : 15 April, 2016।
  3. 3.0 3.1 SHRI NIMBARKACHARYA (English) indianscriptures। Retrieved : 15 April, 2016।

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